1. Marfan syndrome occurs when a person has a mutation in a gene that codes for a protein that makes up some of the fibers of connective tissue, so that they have an abundance of these fibers. Interestingly, the fibers “hold on to” a specific growth factor that causes extreme growth in those tissues. In your essay on this topic, include these ideas:
• Explain why bones and ligaments would both be affected. (Yes, it is easy)
• What would this person look like, as compared to a person without Marfan syndrome?
• Explain why this patient would be more prone to (a) fractures and more prone to (b) dislocations than other people.
2. “Dwarfism” is often defined as someone who has a height of less than 4’10” due to a medical or genetic problem. There are many causes of short stature, but we will focus on only 2. In your essay on this topic, include these ideas:
• Describe pituitary dwarfism, including the cause and the general appearance of the patient.
• Describe achondroplatic dwarfism, including the cause and the general appearance of the patient.
• Only one of these patients would potentially benefit from Growth Hormone Injections – which one and why?
• One of these patients almost inherits this disease – which one and is it dominant or recessive?
3. TMJD (Temporomandicular joint dysfunction) is extremely common, and poorly understood. In your essay on this topic, include these ideas:
• What is the temporomandibular joint and where is it? Describe the motion that can be observed (normally) at this joint. What does this motion allow us to do?
• This joint has an articular disc – what is the articular disc (location and tissue type) and why is it important?
• There are many possible symptoms and causes of this problem. One common problem includes difficulty fully opening or closing the jaw. Explain why this might occur.
• Describe a non-surgical treatment option for this disorder.
4. Boniva, Fosamax and Actonel are all medications aimed at reducing osteoporosis. They bind the calcium salts in bone. They may be toxic to osteoclasts, and result in cell death.
• Explain why this is an effective way to treat osteoporosis.
• However, this class of drugs can cause significant digestive system problems. So, there are other medications that might also be used. Look up the effect of Calcitonin on bone cells and then determine if you would recommend Calcitonin therapy (Fortical or Miacalcin) for patients who cannot tolerate Boniva? Explain.
• IF a patient did try Calcitonin, what nutritional supplements might they also need? APA