How did the problem of evil shape Islamic theology and Islamic thought in general?
What were the main Islamic responses to the problem of evil, and what were the main examples that were used to illustrate these responses?
Why al-Ghazali’s idea of “the best of all possible worlds” was considered problematic?
How did Ibn al-Qayyim justify the infallibility of Divine decree?
How/to what extent does the study of the plagues and pandemics offer an important perspective in understanding world history?
Why did contagion represent a theological challenge in the Islamic tradition?
Why are the views of the Andalusian scholars Ibn al-Khatib and Ibn Lubb on the issue of contagion often contrasted?
What was the economic and demographic impact of the Black Death in the Middle East?
Why were Ottoman, and generally Islamic, responses to the recurrent plague pandemics branded as fatalistic in European accounts?
How does Nukhet Varlik respond to the charge of the “fatalistic Turks” in Western historiographies?
To what extent was Ibn Hajar’s account on the etiology of the plague unique and how did it influence other subsequent accounts in The Middle East and elsewhere?
Why was the framework suggested by Algerian scholar Hamdan Khoja for countering plague pandemics considered revolutionary in the 19th century?
What are the main lessons to be gained from studying earlier (plague) pandemics?
Why did COVID-19 pandemic elicit comparison with earlier historical precedents of plague pandemics?
To what extent have Islamic responses to the COVID-19 pandemic been shaped by earlier accounts on historical precedents of (plague) pandemics?
The problem of evil has shaped Islamic theology and Islamic thought in general by causing Muslims to question how a good and all-powerful God could allow suffering in the world. This has led some Muslims to argue that Allah is not all-powerful, that he has limited his power, or that he is not good. Other Muslims have responded to the problem of evil by developing theories about the nature of evil and the nature of Allah's sovereignty.
There are a number of ways in which the problem of evil has shaped Islamic theology. One way is that it has led to a reconsideration of the nature of Allah's sovereignty. Many Muslims believe that Allah is all-powerful and that he can do anything he wants. However, the existence of evil in the world seems to contradict this belief. Some Muslims have therefore argued that Allah must be limited in his power, or that he is not good.
Another way in which the problem of evil has shaped Islamic theology is by causing Muslims to question how a good and all-powerful God could allow suffering in the world. This has led some Muslims to develop theories about the nature of evil and the nature of Allah's sovereignty. For example .............
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