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Question: Memo on Crime Victims’ Rights Act (CVRA) Application in Stephanie’s Murder Case

02 Jul 2024,8:32 AM

As you learned, Roberta Roper described the experience as a victim navigating a criminal justice system when many victims’ rights law did not yet exists. For this assignment, you are to assume that the Crime Victims’ Rights Act is in effect during the prosecution of the two individuals arrested and charged with Stephanie’s murder (for purposes of this assignment we are assuming the case was being prosecuted in federal court and, therefore, the federal CVRA would apply).

Required Analysis: You are to assume the role of the law clerk working for the judge presiding over this case. The judge has asked that you write a memo providing an analysis of the following legal issues:

Explain what rights have been violated based on Roberta’s description of how she has experienced the trial and who is responsible for the violations based on the CVRA?

Who is obligated under the CVRA to ensure that victims are made aware of their rights and connected to independent legal counsel? If the victim in the case in not present, what can a judge do to ensure they were given notice of the trial and advised of the right to be present and heard?

Who is required to ensure that victims are afforded an opportunity to assert (raise to the court) their rights? What could this process look like during a criminal prosecution?

Why would the CVRA contemplate that both the victims’ lawful representative and the attorney for the Government may assert the rights?

Under the CVRA, what would be required in order to Roberta to seek enforcement of the rights violations you identified in 1 above?

What options for accountability are their when a criminal justice professional who is obligated to comply with the rights in the CVRA does not do so? What would this require of the victim(s) who experienced the violations?

To fully cover all of the questions asked without adding in extraneous information, this paper must be 3-4 pages long.






The Crime Victims’ Rights Act (CVRA) was established to ensure that victims of crime are afforded a set of rights intended to protect their interests during the criminal justice process. Roberta Roper’s experience navigating the criminal justice system without the protections of the CVRA provides a stark contrast to the potential safeguards that could have been available under the Act. This memorandum analyzes the legal issues related to the application of the CVRA in the prosecution of individuals charged with Stephanie’s murder, assuming the case is being prosecuted in federal court. Specifically, it addresses the rights violations described by Roberta, the obligations of parties under the CVRA, the mechanisms for ensuring victims can assert their rights, and the enforcement and accountability measures available under the Act.

Rights Violations Under the CVRA

The CVRA provides a comprehensive framework for the protection of victims’ rights during criminal prosecutions; however, violations can still occur if responsible parties fail to uphold these protections.

Violated Rights Based on Roberta’s Experience

Roberta Roper’s description of her experience reveals several potential violations of rights that would be protected under the CVRA. These include:

  1. Right to be reasonably protected from the accused (18 U.S.C. § 3771(a)(1)): If Roberta and her family were not adequately safeguarded from threats or harm by the accused, this right was violated.

  2. Right to reasonable, accurate, and timely notice of any public court proceeding or parole proceeding involving the crime, or of any release or escape of the accused (18 U.S.C. § 3771(a)(2)): Roberta indicated a lack of timely notification about court proceedings, which would be a clear violation of this right.

  3. Right to be present at all public court proceedings related to the offense, unless the court determines that testimony by the victim would be materially altered if the victim heard other testimony at that proceeding (18 U.S.C. § 3771(a)(3)): If Roberta was not informed of her right to be present or was excluded from proceedings without justification, this right was violated.

  4. Right to be reasonably heard at any public proceeding in the district court involving release, plea, sentencing, or any parole proceeding (18 U.S.C. § 3771(a)(4)): Any denial of the opportunity for Roberta to express her views at significant hearings would constitute a violation of this right.

  5. Right to confer with the attorney for the Government in the case (18 U.S.C. § 3771(a)(5)): If Roberta was not given the chance to confer with the prosecution, her right was breached.

  6. Right to full and timely restitution as provided in law (18 U.S.C. § 3771(a)(6)): Failure to ensure timely restitution would violate this right.

  7. Right to proceedings free from unreasonable delay (18 U.S.C. § 3771(a)(7)): Any undue delays in the prosecution that prolonged the family’s suffering would be a violation.

  8. Right to be treated with fairness and with respect for the victim’s dignity and privacy (18 U.S.C. § 3771(a)(8)): Any actions that disregarded Roberta’s dignity and privacy during the trial process would infringe upon this right.

Responsible Parties for Rights Violations

The violations described would primarily implicate the following parties:

  • Law Enforcement: Responsible for ensuring the protection of victims from the accused.
  • Prosecution: Obligated to inform victims of their rights, ensure their presence at proceedings, and confer with them regarding the case.
  • Court Officials: Responsible for notifying victims of proceedings and ensuring their right to be heard.
  • Correctional Authorities: Required to inform victims of the release or escape of the accused.

Obligations Under the CVRA

Notification and Legal Counsel

Obligation to Inform Victims of Their Rights:

Under the CVRA, the attorney for the Government (prosecution) is primarily responsible for informing victims of their rights and connecting them to independent legal counsel. This ensures that victims are aware of their protections and can effectively participate in the criminal justice process.

Judicial Responsibility if Victim is Absent:

If the victim is not present, the judge can take several actions to ensure the victim was given notice of the trial and advised of their right to be present and heard:

  1. Verify Notification: The judge can require the prosecution to provide proof of notification efforts, such as copies of letters, emails, or documented phone calls to the victim.
  2. Postponement of Proceedings: The judge may delay proceedings until it is confirmed that the victim has been adequately informed and has had an opportunity to attend.
  3. Appointment of Victim Advocate: The judge can appoint a victim advocate to ensure continuous communication with the victim and provide support throughout the trial process.

Ensuring Victims Can Assert Their Rights

Obligation to Facilitate Assertion of Rights:

The CVRA requires that both the victims’ lawful representative and the attorney for the Government ensure victims can assert their rights. This can be facilitated through several processes:

  1. Regular Communication: Establishing consistent communication channels between the victim and the prosecution.
  2. Victim Impact Statements: Allowing and encouraging the submission of victim impact statements during key phases of the trial, such as sentencing.
  3. Legal Representation: Providing or recommending legal representation for the victim to navigate complex legal proceedings.

Example Process During Prosecution:

During a criminal prosecution, the following steps can be taken to ensure victims can assert their rights:

  1. Pre-Trial Phase:

    • Initial Meeting: The prosecution meets with the victim to explain their rights under the CVRA and the forthcoming legal process.
    • Notification Protocol: Establishing a protocol for timely notifications about court dates and other significant developments.
  2. Trial Phase:

    • Court Presence: Ensuring the victim is present at all public court proceedings and has the opportunity to be heard.
    • Regular Updates: Providing regular updates to the victim about the trial’s progress and any changes in schedule or circumstances.
  3. Post-Trial Phase:

    • Restitution and Sentencing: Facilitating the victim’s input on sentencing and ensuring timely restitution if applicable.
    • Parole Hearings: Notifying the victim about parole hearings and ensuring their right to participate.

Role of Victims’ Lawful Representatives and Government Attorneys

Why the CVRA Contemplates Multiple Representatives:

The CVRA allows both the victims’ lawful representative and the attorney for the Government to assert victims’ rights to ensure comprehensive protection and advocacy. This dual representation is crucial for several reasons:

  1. Holistic Support: It provides a holistic support system where the victim’s interests are continuously represented, both in court and through legal proceedings.
  2. Legal Expertise: The attorney for the Government brings legal expertise and resources, while the lawful representative ensures that the victim’s personal and emotional needs are addressed.
  3. Enhanced Advocacy: This dual approach enhances advocacy for the victim, ensuring their rights are not overlooked or marginalized during the criminal justice process.

Enforcement of Rights Violations

Steps for Seeking Enforcement

To seek enforcement of rights violations identified under the CVRA, Roberta would need to undertake the following steps:

  1. Documentation of Violations: Gather detailed documentation of the rights violations, including dates, descriptions, and any communications with law enforcement or court officials.
  2. Filing a Motion: File a motion with the court detailing the violations and requesting specific remedies, such as the opportunity to be heard, access to information, or protection measures.
  3. Legal Representation: Engage legal counsel to represent her interests in court and ensure that her motion is effectively presented.
  4. Court Hearing: Attend a court hearing where the motion will be reviewed, and the judge will determine the appropriate course of action to address the violations.

Accountability for Non-Compliance

Options for Accountability

When a criminal justice professional fails to comply with the CVRA, several accountability measures can be pursued:

  1. Internal Disciplinary Actions: The victim can file a complaint with the relevant agency or department, prompting an internal investigation and potential disciplinary actions against the responsible party.
  2. Judicial Remedies: The court can order specific remedies, such as mandating compliance with the CVRA or providing additional protections to the victim.
  3. Civil Remedies: The victim may seek civil remedies for damages caused by the failure to comply with the CVRA, although this is less common.

Requirements for the Victim

To pursue accountability, the victim must:

  1. File a Complaint: Submit a formal complaint to the agency or court detailing the non-compliance and the impact on their rights.
  2. Provide Evidence: Present evidence supporting the claim of non-compliance, including any correspondence, records, or witness statements.
  3. Engage Legal Counsel: Consider engaging legal counsel to navigate the complexities of filing complaints and pursuing remedies.


The Crime Victims’ Rights Act (CVRA) is a critical piece of legislation designed to protect the rights and interests of crime victims during the criminal justice process. Roberta Roper’s experience highlights the importance of these protections and the potential consequences when they are not upheld. By understanding the obligations of the prosecution, court officials, and other parties under the CVRA, victims can better assert their rights and seek enforcement when violations occur. Accountability measures are essential to ensuring that the protections afforded by the CVRA are not merely theoretical but are actively implemented and respected throughout the criminal justice system.

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