a. The term L2 learners vs. L2 users: which one does the author (along with Cook) prefer and why? What is the term that Valdes interchangeably with heritage students? What are your thoughtson this term?
b. What is “contact varieties of language”? What are some results of those contacts? (pp. 414-415) Can you think of any examples of such contact varieties of language?
c. Communal language & I-language: Immigrant communities may have communal language that is different from L1. What are some examples that Valdes talks about? Any personal anecdotes from your experience?
d. Incomplete acquisition vs. attrition: what are they and how are they different?