1. What is the advantage of having 2 separate paths (extrinsic and intrinsic) that both result in the formation of prothrombin activator? (4 Marks)
2. If whole blood were spun down in a hematocrit test, describe the layers that would form in the test tube and what is contained within each layer. (3 Marks)
3. Mrs. Jackson, a 59-year-old woman, has undergone a left radical mastectomy (removal of the left breast and left axillary lymph nodes and vessels). Her left arm is severely swollen and painful. The doctor informed her that the swelling was due to the accumulation of lymph fluid following her operation.
a) What are the four main components of the lymphatic system? Give examples of each component where possible. (3 Marks)
b) Identify 3 main functions of the lymphatic system. (3 Marks)
c) Describe how lymph from the left hand gets back into the systemic circulation. (2 Marks)
4. Consider an adult RBC traveling from the right ventricle all the way to the right coronary artery. What’s the minimum number of valves it must have passed? Name them in order. (3 Marks)
5. Steven, a 30-year-old man, was mugged and stabbed in the chest with a short knife. He was rushed to the emergency room where examination revealed a small entry wound in the fourth intercostal space 3 cm lateral to the left sternal edge. The doctors were concerned about damage to the heart. Steven was initially fine but suddenly lost consciousness and had an increased respiratory rate due to his pericardial cavity filling with blood, a condition known as cardiac tamponade.
a) Describe the location of the heart within the thorax. (1 Mark)
b) List the pericardial coverings of the heart from superficial to deep. (1.5 Marks)
c) Explain the location of the pericardial cavity (the area that had filled with blood). (1.5 Mark)
d) Why would filling the pericardial cavity with blood result in compression of the heart? (2 Marks)
e) What is meant by the term cardiac output and how is it measured? (1 Mark)
f) What would be the effect of compressing the heart on: (6 Marks)
i. Cardiac output.
ii. Oxygen saturation of the blood.
iii. Respiratory rate.
6. Explain why capillaries are the most important blood vessels in the body. (3 Marks)
7. Describe and give the source of the heart sounds. (4 Marks)
8. Explain why a surgeon would examine the lymph nodes surrounding a cancerous tumor. (2 Marks)
9. Explain what occurs after a B cell is exposed to an antigen. Include the role of the memory cells. (4 Marks)
10. Compare and contrast the similarities and differences between a ‘pacemaker’ potential and an action potential occurring in a cardiac muscle cells. (6 Marks)