1. What is town extension planning? What did it contribute to the genesis of urban planning?
2. In what ways are the Garden City and the City Beautiful movements alike, and in what ways do they differ? Why do you think commentators so often see them as one?
3. Urban planning in the 1930s, although institutionally and intellectually mature, had had and was still having minimal impact on most cities. Explain this distinction, providing evidence from Toronto (its 1928 plan and related activities).
4. What were the main planning principles of the 1959 plan for the Metropolitan Toronto planning area? Hans Blumenfeld, one of that plan’s creators, had argued in 1948 that cities grow more by accretion than by procreation. What did he mean by
this, and is this idea of his apparent in the plan?
5. Identify and explain the main critiques of and challenges to urban planning which were voiced in the 1960s. Do you agree with those critics?
6. Considering all three scales of planning – urban, metropolitan, and regional – in Toronto and region, what have you learned in this course about “the limits of planning as a force shaping urban development”? How much of what we see in and around
Toronto is the result of plans and planning?