Suppose that each process starts executing the algorithm described in b) at the same time t. Describing the actions taken by the processes during the execution, determine the timing instance when each process decides and terminates the execution. You may assume that a process takes zero time to execute the instructions of the algorithm and that no process fails. [24 marks]
Show why P cannot be a fair-exchange protocol. [10 marks]
Examine whether or not the modified version of P above is a fair-exchange protocol and justify your answer. If it is a fair-exchange protocol, what constitutes A’s non-repudiation of receipt (NRR)? On the other hand, if the modified version is not a fair-exchange protocol, suggest some ways to fix the flaw(s) identified. [20 marks]
A wave algorithm is an algorithm used to propagate information through a network of nodes. Wave algorithms can be centralized or decentralized. Centralized wave algorithms require a central node to initiate and coordinate the propagation of information, while decentralized wave algorithms allow each node to independently propagate information.
The main distinction between centralized and decentralized wave algorithms is that centralized algorithms are more efficient in terms of message passing, but they are vulnerable to single points of failure. Decentralized algorithms are less efficient, but they are more robust against failures.
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