You work for a Chinese medium-sized consultancy company which specialises in international marketing research and strategy development. Against the background on the global recovery from the pandemic, your company has just been awarded a contract by a new client (see Choice of Organisation below) to undertake an international marketing project. As well as being financially rewarding, the successful execution of the work as contracted by this new client would enhance your company’s reputation internationally as a credible consultancy company.
You have been tasked by your company to be the lead consultant. Your remit is to help your client to first carry out a market analysis to identify a new international market with good potential and produce a medium-term international marketing strategy based on the findings of your analysis, for entry into this new international market from 2023.
Choice of Organisation
You will base your coursework on one of the two organisations listed below.
Li Ning Co., Ltd. was founded by Ning Li in 1989 in Beijing, China. It focuses on the research and development, design, manufacture, distribution, and retail of sport goods including footwear, apparel, equipment, and accessories for professional and leisure purposes. Despite the company’s efforts to enter overseas markets through high-profile endorsement deals with NBA stars, its brand awareness and distribution coverage in foreign markets remains weak. However, the increasing popularity of sportswear and streetwear around the world offers Li Ning unprecedented opportunities to expand abroad.
Li Ning are looking to expand their international markets in one of the following global regions:
BYD Auto Co., Ltd. ("Build Your Dreams") is the automotive subsidiary of the Chinese multinational BYD Co Ltd, headquartered in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. It was founded in January 2003, following BYD Company's acquisition of Qinchuan Automobile Company in 2002. The company produces cars, buses, trucks, electric bicycles, forklifts and rechargeable batteries. The current model range of automobiles includes electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles and petrol engine vehicles. According to official sources, in July 2021, BYD has handed over the first units of its all-electric SUV model Tang to customers in Norway.
Having already established subsidiaries in both Europe and US, the Chinese brand has ambitious plans to enter more international markets in the near future.
Bullion is looking to expand its operations internationally and are considering the following regions:
Marketing in Global Context
International Marketing Report
3,500 words (+/- 10%)
Select a client from the two choices given above. Then, select one of the two global regions in which your client would like to expand its international markets.
You have been tasked to conduct an international market analysis into the selected global region through which you will identify and recommend to your client the most suitable country/market. Following your market analysis, you are required to produce an international marketing strategy for making a successful market entry into this country/market.
Your task submission should be produced in an academic report format and include the following:
Section A (1500 words)
Section B (2000 words)
Please Note: Your coursework must focus on identifying consumer segments that do not share the same ethnic/national culture as your own. For example, you must not choose to target a Chinese product at the Chinese immigrants in another country. Rather, your focus should be on identifying cross-cultural market opportunities to target the main (normally the largest) ethnic consumer group(s) of the country from your research.
Guidance on report format
Each task should be presented in an academic report style format and should include the following principles:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
List of figures, Tables and Matrices
(NB: These are listed at the end of the Contents)
2.0 Target Global Market (South America/North Europe/ Africa)
2.1. Market Ranking Table
2.2. 12 C – Market Measurement
2.3. Market Size Analysis
2.4. Target Market Choice & Justification
3.0 Situational Analysis
3.1 Company Analysis
3.2 Organization’s Assets and Skills
3.3 Market Analysis
3.3.1 Business Environment analysis
188.8.131.52 Political/Legal/Institutional Environments
184.108.40.206 Regulatory Environment (Present and anticipated)
220.127.116.11 Economic Environment (Conditions and Trends)
18.104.22.168 Social and Cultural Environment (Factors and Trends)
22.214.171.124 Demographic Environment (Data and Identification of Trends)
126.96.36.199 Technological Environment (Factors and Trends)
188.8.131.52 Natural Environment (Effect of Seasonal or Climatic Factors)
184.108.40.206 Physical Environment (Infrastructure Indicators)
3.2.2 Nature of Demand
3.2.3 Size and Extent of Demand
3.2.4 Product Category Stage of Product Life Cycle
3.2.5 Structure of the Industry
220.127.116.11 Cost Structure of the Industry
18.104.22.168 Competitive Structure of the Industry
3.4 Competitor Analysis (in country of investment)
4.0 SWOT ANALYSIS
4.1 Internal Company Strengths and Weaknesses
4.2 External Market Opportunities and Threats
4.3 Implications of SWOT Analysis
5.0 TARGET MARKET & OBJECTIVES à should follow from SWOT
5.1 International Objectives
5.2 Market Objectives
6.0 RECOMMENDED MARKETING STRATEGY (TSP Framework)
6.1 Target Markets Identification and Segmentation Strategy
6.2 Market Positioning
6.3 Market Entry Strategy
7.0 MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES AND TACTICS
7.1 Product/Service and Branding Strategy
7.2 Place (Distribution) Strategy
7.3 Price Strategy Structure
7.4 Promotion Strategy (including Promotional Budget)
8.0 PLANNING BUDGET
8.1 Planning Assumptions
8.2 Forecast Sales (and Market Share) and Costs (Capital, Operating, Marketing, etc.)
8.3 Forecast Profitability (or Break Even Analysis)
8.4 Sensitivity Analysis (incorporating contingency issues)
9.0 IMPLEMENTATION AND CONTROL
9.1 Formal Project Plan for Implementation of Recommendations
9.2 Monitoring of Action Plan
9.3 Formal Contingency Plans
11.1 Situation Analysis
11.2 SWOT Analysis
11.3 Evaluation of Alternative Marketing Strategies
11.4 Company promotional/product brochures
11.5 Tariff Rates
11.6 Summary Table of interviews
11.7 Record of Contact and Activities, and Project Plan
THE MARKETING PLAN
This report (or guide) has been written as an aid to developing an international marketing plan. It is divided into a number of key sections that are a suggested framework for your plan.
The guide is a generalized approach to writing an international marketing plan. Each section identifies many key issues that can be addressed in the preparation of such a plan.
Not all the issues are relevant to each company's case. Also, additional issues may arise that are not covered in this guide. You will, however, find it a useful tool in tackling many of the questions that do arise.
It can be used to document an approach for new market entry or existing market expansion. A key assumption is that only one new country market will be considered at a time.
The guide is relevant to marketers of both products and services. For simplicity, however, the term "products" is used throughout.
Planning is an essential part of developing a successful international business. It is a process that examines a firm's business in relation to:
Generally it follows the process of:
The plan is principally of benefit to the company's managers and current or potential owners of the business. It is a document prepared at a point in time that should describe a clear and concise series of activities that will achieve a particular international marketing objective, in line with the selected marketing strategy.
DO NOT fill your marketing plan with a lot of irrelevant information. All information contained in the report must be analyzed and related back to the company and the new market.
Remember: The plan must be action oriented!
2.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (For reference purposes here)
You must provide details of the type of methodology you employed for this report. Ideally, you should conduct extensive secondary research and then obtain further, more tailored/specific information from primary sources. The primary data can be analyzed using either quantitative or qualitative methodology or a combination of both.
Full details of your methodology should be provided in an appendix (e.g. Summary Table of Interviews, which will describe part of your methodology in terms of respondents).
SECTIONS 3.0, 4.0 AND 6.0 (See Appendix 11.1)
Sections 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 in the Main Report should contain a summary of the main points of the Appendices.
Although there is no clear cut formula for incorporating material from the Appendices in the main report, some sections (SWOT Analysis and Alternative Marketing Strategies) will contain almost all of the Appendix material in the equivalent section of the Main Report, while other sections (Situation Analysis) will be abbreviated in the Main Report - but with sufficient content to clearly
address the key questions and issues related to that section. You can, if you wish, abbreviate the Appendices in the Main Report and reference material back to the Appendices. In all cases, in the Main Report, you must clearly reference the appendix material.
3.0 SITUATION ANALYSIS
This section will contain the results of your analysis of the information contained in Appendix 11.1.
4.0 SWOT ANALYSIS
The data gathered together in Appendix 11.1 and clearly stated in section 3.0 Situation Analysis now needs to be analyzed in order to assess the market opportunities in relation to the likely barriers to market entry or expansion.
The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats should be clearly laid out in your report. It is often best to present the SWOT in a table, either in the Main Body or in the Appendix.
It is vital that you analyze the information in the SWOT analysis and discuss the implications for your company in the new market. The implications should be stated in the main body of your report.
Figure 1 - The SWOT Analysis (See Appendix 11.3)
5.1 International Objectives
Why is the company seeking to expand internationally?
5.2 Market Objectives
The first market objective a company may define for a particular overseas market is which market segment(s) should the firm focus its limited resources on.
This targeting is required because companies usually cannot satisfy the needs
and requirements of each segment equally well. From an examination of these
different needs, it will become apparent which products and services within the
company’s portfolio will be the most attractive to these market segments.
The company can also define its objectives in terms of how its market share after
a given time will compare to its competitors, for example:
A key consideration is where can the company’s marketing effort yield the
greatest return? In other words, where is Return-On-Investment (ROI) highest?
The company should define its market objectives, in line with the key issues for
international expansion, as identified in section 3.0 Situation Analysis. Often,
objectives will be defined in terms of quantity (volume of units) or value ($) of
goods sold over a given time period.
Financial objectives follow from the above analysis. Marketing programs must
ultimately be funded from cash flow generated within the market, with profits
being used by the company for:
A number of profit analyses can be used:
All of these analyses (quantity/value objectives, profitability objectives) should
have a time frame:
Objectives should be measurable wherever possible.
6.0 RECOMMENDED MARKETING STRATEGY
The recommended marketing strategy is a result of the analysis in Appendix 11.3: Evaluation of Alternative Marketing Strategies.
Remember that if you decide not to proceed with market entry or expansion, this can also be a reasonable strategy option.
Target markets and positioning statements should be clearly identified. Often it is useful to clearly define a positioning strategy in a single sentence which summarizes in a general way what the company seeks to achieve and how it will do it. For example:
"We will achieve market leadership by providing quality ergonomic furniture solutions to architects that best meets their needs and requirements."
An important positioning characteristic of a brand - whether a car, a soft-drink, a bicycle or a computer - is its position on the perceived quality dimension. Is it an economy, value, premium or ultra premium entry? In addition, with regards to a perceived quality category, is the brand the best, or is it merely competitive with other brands in the same class?
"To discerning people who want the best, Mercedes is the car that will give you the benefits of the latest technology combined with safety and power, offering maximum reliability and state-of-the-art quality".
When a company makes the commitment to go international, it must choose an entry strategy. This decision should reflect an analysis of market characteristics (such as potential sales, competition, strategic importance, strengths of local resources, cultural differences, and country restrictions and deregulation. In addition, company capabilities and characteristics, including the degree of near-market knowledge, marketing involvement, and commitment that management is prepared to make must be considered.
Companies most often begin with modest export involvement. A company has four different modes of foreign market entry from which to select: exporting, contractual agreements, strategic alliances, and direct foreign investment. The different modes of entry can be further classified on the basis of the equity or non-equity requirements of each mode. The amount of equity required by the company to use different modes affects the risk, return, and control that it will have in each mode.
7.0 MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES AND TACTICS
Break each of the 4 Ps into Strategy and Tactical Plan elaboration. You need to provide a lot of detail, particularly in the Tactics component. The marketing mix strategies and tactics must be integrated and consistent to achieving company objectives.
How product, promotion, distribution, and pricing strategies evolve in international marketing is dependent on the approach to internationalization the company takes. Therefore, you need to consider your marketing mix strategy in light of your market entry strategy addressed in Section 6.
Differing strategies and market tactics may be required for various target segments. For a given target segment, alternative strategies and programs should be formulated and evaluated as to the effectiveness of each in achieving company objectives.
Some of the issues that might be relevant include:
Make sure that product strategies support the company’s overall strategy.
A number of issues are important in pricing products for overseas markets:
A number of distribution options are likely to be available to your company. You
will need to assess the distribution (and production) options in accordance with
the opportunities available and the resources of the company. These may
You must decide whether you are going to use single or multiple channels.
Identify potential partners for the company (distributors, agents, joint venture partners, etc.) based on the chosen production/distribution option and profile according to Important selection criteria such as:
Having decided on one or more local partners, you must decide whether to
negotiate exclusive or non-exclusive distribution arrangements with them.
In order to promote your products and your company you must consider a
number of major issues:
8.0 PLANNING BUDGET
The recommended cost of a marketing program is subject to serious consideration and approval by management.
Establishing the marketing budget is related directly to the preceding planning activity..... Strategies and Tactics. It must, of necessity, follow development of your action programs.
à Strategies propose your plan of attack.
à Budget specifies how much it will cost.
8.1 Planning Assumptions
Assumptions are estimates of future operating conditions for your marketing plan.
Assumptions describe your estimate of important developments or environmental conditions beyond your control....which you cannot accurately predict, but you must contend with as you carry out your plan.
8.2 and 8.3 Forecasts
All analyses and forecasts should be based on a multi-year format, usually covering a three to five year time-frame.
Forecasts should be presented in the form of Profit and Loss Statements for each year of the Plan, ideally with the 3 or 5 years of P & L statements rolled up into one table.
Forecasts should be as realistic as possible - even if this means that there may be losses.
The Profit and Loss Statements should include Break-Even Analysis.
8.4 Sensitivity/Scenario Analysis
Sections 9.2 and 9.3 should be your "Most-Likely" Scenario.
You should model two further scenarios - a "best-case" and "worst-case" scenario, clearly identifying your changes and assumptions in each scenario and using the same structure and time periods as in the "Most-Likely" scenario.
A table summarizing the P & L Statements for all scenarios should be presented in this section.
9.0 IMPLEMENTATION AND CONTROL
This section pulls together all the tactics and actions required for the successful implementation of the market entry/expansion program.
Control activities are directed towards programs initiated by the marketing process.
As the market process is based on implementation, it is necessary to state the way in which the marketing activities will be monitored and their outcomes measured. This will indicate whether the marketing objectives are being achieved.
You will need to:
Typically, control measures will be based on sales volume, sales value, or marketing contribution over a period of time. Measures may also be based on the number of distribution points obtained, quantity of floor stock placed, level of consumer awareness, change in consumer attitudes, amount of brand switching, or other measures that are appropriate and relevant.
You must also establish where decision making control will lie. Considerations of where decisions will be made, by whom, and by which method, constitute a major element of organizational strategy. Management policy must be explicit about which decisions are to be made at corporate headquarters, which at international headquarters, which at regional levels, and which at national or even local levels. Most companies also limit the amount of money to be spent at each level. Decision levels for determination of policy, strategy, and tactical decisions must be established. Tactical decisions normally should be made at the lowest possible level, without country-by-country duplication.
You should also develop contingency programs in case things do not go according to your plan.
9.1 Formal Project Plan for Implementation of Recommendations
Often a planning chart is used with a time span of about one year. This chart is a guide to the implementation of the marketing plan and includes:
-Activity or action
9.2 Monitoring of Action Plan
A review process should be formulated and presented and incorporated into the project.
9.3 Formal Contingency Plans
Contingency Plans should be included, clearly identifying contingency events and actions required to respond to these events. These plans may be in discussion form or in the same form as the Action Plan.
The Appendices allow you to include useful information without disrupting the development of your argument in the body of the report with copious data.
APPENDIX 11.1 SITUATION ANALYSIS
11.1.1 Company Analysis
Briefly detail how the company is structured:
When was the company established?
What is the core business activity of the company? What industry are you in and what are the major industry trends in Local country and overseas? What is your target market segment(s) in Local country? Who are your important customers?
What are the company’s operating revenues for the past three years?
Fully describe the company’s products/services in terms of:
Who are the key managers? What are their skills and experiences and how does this relate to the success of the venture?
What R & D activities does the company conduct? What percentage of revenue is spent on R & D?
What is the status of the company’s current technology (ideas, prototypes, etc.)?
What patents/copyright or trademarks does it hold?
What competing companies have technologies that are superior or equal to yours?
Describe the company’s domestic market position:
Who are its main local country competitors? Are the major competitive products manufactured locally or overseas? What is the company’s and its competitor’s respective market share?
Does the company have access capacity for export (if relevant)? How might this be expanded? What are the critical product components and will there be problems in sourcing supplies?
What are the financial resources of the company?
11.1.2 Organization’s Assets and Skills
What competitive strategy has brought the company to its present market position? What key competitive advantages underpin this strategy?
What are its 'Distinctive competences', 'unique selling proposition' or 'competitive edge'? What are the chief factors that will account for its international success? Are these strengths likely to be sustainable in international markets?
What is it about your products/services that would encourage a potential customer to switch from their existing supplier to your firm?
How are your products differentiated? What strengths/advantages do they have? What is the company’s cost position (is it a low cost producer)?
Do you offer superior service/support to end-users and channel intermediaries?
What is the company’s image/reputation in the marketplace?
What production or operating advantages does the company have?
What is the state of production facilities?
Are the equipment/manufacturing methods used state-of-the-art?
Does the company have a competitive advantage in terms of its personnel – key executives, managers, sales personnel, etc.?
11.1.3 Market Analysis
A successful international market strategy requires identification of an attractive overseas market and establishment of a competitive position within that market.
Accurate market analysis is essential for these tasks.
Before analyzing the market, you should provide some rationale as to why you have chosen a particular country for investigation. Also describe what selection criteria was used.
22.214.171.124 Business Environmental Analysis
What are the main environmental factors influencing market demand for the relevant product category, and therefore the company’s operation in the country.
126.96.36.199.1 Political/Legal/Institutional Factors
List factors relevant to your company’s activities/products within that country.
Are there any expected legislative changes that will impact on your market entry?
188.8.131.52.2 Regulatory Environmental Factors (Present and Anticipated)
Are there are specific relevant regulations related to your product with respect to product testing, safety standards, advertising restrictions, zoning or bylaw restrictions? Are any of the current regulations likely to change?
What tariff and non-tariff barriers exist for imported products?
Do these barriers differ for local and non-local manufactured products?
Are there any restrictions on remitting licensing and royalty fees overseas?
What standards and regulations are applicable to these products?
What are the certification requirements?
To what extent do the regulatory standards govern manufacturing, promotion, labeling, packaging, distribution and pricing?
Who are the major regulatory authorities? Provide details of who should be approached for product registration.
Outline the registration/certification process. What are the typical registration delays and costs for this product category?
184.108.40.206.3 Economic Conditions
Provide a brief economic overview with an assessment of the following economic indicators:
220.127.116.11.4 Social and Cultural Factors
Provide information on any social and culture factors that will impact on your firm's activities/products within that country.
18.104.22.168.5 Demographic Trends
List all relevant demographic trends in the target overseas market (age distribution, per capita income, level of education, socio-economic groupings, etc.)
22.214.171.124.6 Technological Environment and Trends
List all relevant technological factors that aid or inhibit product or service delivery or relationships with buyers or suppliers. Technological factors may also have implications for the type of promotional media used. For example, does your target market have access to television, internet, mobile phones, etc. Are there any trends in accessibility and how might they affect your company.
126.96.36.199.7 Natural Environment (Effect of Seasonal or Climatic Factors)
Only include details that impact on your company's activities in the target country, in terms of supply, storage, distribution, demand, etc.
188.8.131.52.8 Physical Environment (Infrastructure Indicators)
11.1.4 Nature of Demand
Can the market be meaningfully segmented or broken into homogeneous groups of buyers? Identify these major end use segments. Criteria for segmentation may include:
For each of the key market segments (consumer and industrial) you identify, provide information on buyer characteristics such as:
What is the major method of procurement in each segment?
Who specifies, initiates and influences the purchasing decision in each market segment?
Identify and rank in order of importance the key considerations affecting the purchase decision in each segment and provide a brief explanation of each criterion. These may include:
How are customers likely to respond to the company's product/service offerings?
You may also use the 6W model of The Customer Environment
11.1.5 Size and Extent of Demand
What is the size of the market? What are the total sales figures for the relevant product category over the past three years, and projected sales:
What are the major factors influencing any changes in product sales? What is driving these sales trends in this market?
Provide a breakdown of the above historical and forecasted sales figures for each of the major end-user segments (best estimates will suffice if statistical data is not available).
Is the proportion of sales to each of these segments changing? If so, what are the likely reasons for these changes?
What is the size of the import market? Provide import statistics for the past three years, and projected imports:
Is the import market growing/declining/static as a proportion of the total market? Why?
11.1.6 Stage of the Product Life Cycle
For this product group, will the effectiveness of marketing variables differ by stages of the product life cycle?
What is the stage of the product life cycle? What are your reasons for your assessment? Are there apparent changes over time in the types of products demanded? How long has the technology/product been established?
What is the extent and duration of acceptance by end-users?
What is the state of the buyer's knowledge of the product category?
11.1.7 Cost Structure of the Industry
What are the cost factors in production, marketing and distribution in terms of the cost of?
How do these costs compare to those of foreign suppliers, particularly local suppliers? Are local manufacturers/suppliers at a cost advantage or disadvantage?
What are the average margins and price levels through the distribution channels (i.e. from manufacturer, wholesaler, retailers, etc.)?
11.1.3 Competitor Analysis
What percentage of the market is supplied by:
Is the country a net importer or a net exporter of this product group? Which countries are the major foreign suppliers to the market? What is their market share?
Who are the major competitive manufacturers/suppliers (overseas and locally based) of these products?
Is the competitive environment fragmented or concentrated? What is the number of competitors (5 versus 500)?
Identify and rank in terms of market share the major local and overseas manufacturers/suppliers and provide the following information:
Assess the relative threat that your company represents to these competitors.
What will be their likely retaliatory reaction to your market entry?
Can they neutralize different marketing programs you might develop?
What substitute products are in use and which companies supply them?
184.108.40.206 Competition Analysis
We can categorize four basic types of competition:
A tool that is commonly used to assess the market opportunities in relation to the likely barriers to market entry or expansion is the "SWOT" analysis. This is a business assessment made from a review of the overseas market (external factors) and the company (internal factors).
The SWOT refers to the:
11.2.1 Strengths and Weaknesses of your firm and its products/services (in comparison to competitors), and an analysis of:
11.2.2 Opportunities and Threats in the overseas marketplace.
Figure 1 in the Main Report considers the main elements of the SWOT analysis.
11.2.3 Implications of SWOT Analysis
Based on the company and market investigations, provide an assessment of the firm's likelihood of success, taking into account the opportunities and problems highlighted by the SWOT.
You must answer the question: should the company attempt to enter or expand its activities in the targeted country?
The critical issue is whether a profitable business can be established and maintained in the targeted international market.
This is dependent on whether the company has, or can develop, a competitive advantage that is sustainable in that market.
SWOT analysis must be customer-focused.
1. How are these opportunities related to serving customer needs?
2. How can the company catch and keep the opportunities?
After the elementary study of SWOT analysis, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats can be identified. The next step is to study how to convert the bad side to the good one. In this step of the SWOT analysis, strengths of companies should be used to match opportunities, weaknesses should be converted to strengths, and threats should be transformed to opportunities. The figure below illustrates the theory proposed by Ferrell and Hartline (2005).
(Source: Ferrell and Hartline, 2005)
11.2.4 Summary flow of analytical frameworks.
The main analytical frameworks used are PEST, Situation, and SWOT Analyses. PEST analysis emphasizes the macro- environment of the target market, which studies four aspects, Political, Economic, Social, and Technological factors. The situation analysis provide a clear background of the company stated as internal analysis, customer environment, as well as external analysis. SWOT analysis is used to assess strengths and weaknesses of the company and its products and services, and opportunities and threats in the marketplace. All three analytical frameworks together provide comparatively comprehensive understanding and perspectives to the manager and fully examine the feasibility from the internal environment to external, from customers to the company, from weaknesses to strengths.
APPENDIX 11.3: EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE MARKETING STRATEGIES
A thorough examination of all marketing strategies that should be considered by the organization is included in this section. Each of these strategies needs to be evaluated in terms of advantages and disadvantages, leading to a recommendation of either accepting or rejecting the strategy. The main focus in the main body of the report will, of course, be on the recommended strategy(ies).
Many companies attempt to extend their domestic (i.e. Local country) strategy to international markets. This may or may not be successful, depending on the similarities of customers at home and abroad, as well as similarities in competitive offerings.
Appendices 11.4, 11.5, 11.6 Put here if applicable
APPENDIX 11.7: RECORD OF CONTACT AND ACTIVITIES, AND PROJECT PLAN
(NB: This section is not applicable for MARK368)
The following appendices must be completed in the Progress Report as fully as possible as they may be used as a measurement of individual involvement in the project and therefore considered in the individual's final project mark:
 For more detail on various aspects of Situation Analysis see www.netmba.com.
 Ferrell, O.C. and Hartline, M.D. (2005), Marketing Strategy, 3rd ed., Mason, Ohio: South-Western, p.47
 Ferrell and Hartline, 2005
 See Ferrell, O.C. and Hartline, M.D. (2005) Marketing Strategy 3rd edition, Mason, Ohio: South-Western.
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